The relationship between energy and the environment has been the basis of many studies over the years, as has the relationship between energy and development, yet both of these approaches may produce distortions. In the first edition of this book, Professor Goldemberg pioneered the study of all three elements in relation to one another. With contributions from Oswaldo Lucon, this second edition has been expanded and updated to cover how energy is related to the major challenges of sustainability faced by the world today. The book starts by conceptualizing energy, and then relates it to human activities, to existing natural resources and to development indicators. It then covers the main environmental problems, their causes and possible solutions. Disaggregating national populations by income and by how different income groups consume energy, the authors identify the differences between local, regional and global environmental impacts, and can thus ascertain who is responsible for them. Finally, they discuss general and specific policies to promote sustainable development in energy. New coverage is included of today's pressing issues, including security, environmental impact assessment and future climate change/renewable energy regimes. The authors also cover all major new international agreements and technological developments. Energy, Environment and Development is the result of many years of study and practical experience in policy formulation, discussion and implementation in these fields by the authors. Written in a technical yet accessible style, the book is aimed at students on a range of courses, as well as non-energy specialists who desire an overview of recent thought in the area.