The world is rapidly approaching the end of the fossil fuel era. This timely book reviews the historical background for this crisis and provides a comprehensive discussion of its important aspects. It contrasts the Utopian writings of Condorcet, Godwin and Adam Smith, with the more pessimistic views of Malthus and Ricardo. It then discusses the characteristics of mainstream industrialism, as well as the ecological counterculture. The final chapters of the book study the present position regarding both non-renewable and renewable resources, and the problem of reducing the economic trauma that will result from the depletion of fossil fuels, especially the future impact of high petroleum prices on agriculture in relation to global population growth. Readers will gain an understanding of the dangers and opportunities of future developments in science, as well as the steps that must be taken to achieve a stable, sustainable global society.