This book focuses on environmental financing in the process of alignment with the EU. Based on comparative analysis of national environmental strategies and financial needs, and their links with strategic development documents in five selected countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Turkey) the book identifies main achievements and remaining challenges in the main areas of environmental regulation: nature protection, water, waste, air and climate change. For each area the same concept is applied: current situation is presented, followed by an overview of institutional and legal frameworks. Division of competences between actors at the same or at different levels is addressed. Costs of implementation are estimated and possible sources of financing identified.