The current, unprecedented loss of global biodiversity resulting from anthropogenic interference in the world's ecosystems is affecting human well-being across the globe with increasing severity. This book examines two issues that are at the center of the public discussion on biodiversity. First, it examines whether genetic information derived from biodiversity can be used to create incentives to effectively preserve biodiversity. Second, it examines whether establishing and managing protected areas can be accomplished effectively on an international level by using transfer payments. It concludes that, although both approaches have their strengths, neither of them can provide a degree of preservation that is sufficient from a global perspective.