This book comprehensively analyses the impact of continuing European integration on industrial relations institutions and outcomes. It organises an immensely rich body of theoretical and empirical material to sustain its core argument that the governance of industrial relations is increasingly multi-level. Developing relatively autonomously rather than by design, this multi-level framework is the product of responses by a range of national and supranational actors to the challenges of European integration. Cross-national influences are shown to mix with national ones and involve the European sector and company, as well as community, levels. Competing tendencies towards 'Europeanization', 'Americanization' and 'Re-nationalization' of industrial relations are identified. Unclear is whether EU enlargement will extend or unravel these developments. Drawing on the authors' extensive record of comparative European research, the book provides an integrated treatment of industrial relations at the EU community, sector and company levels; examines developments within national systems in the light of European integration; and analyses their interaction with the emerging EU framework. The approach is multi-disciplinary and truly cross-national, integrating the material by theme. It deals with both the theory and practice of industrial relations in contemporary Europe.