This book explores the EU's relations with its eastern neighbours. Based on extensive original research - including surveys, focus-groups, a study of school essays and in-depth interviews with key people in Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia and in Brussels - it assesses why the EU's initiatives have received limited legitimacy in the neighbourhood. The European Neighbourhood Policy of 2004, and the subsequent Eastern Partnership of 2009 heralded a new form of relations with the EU's neighbours - partnership based on joint ownership and shared values - which would complement if not entirely replace the EU's traditional governance framework used for enlargement. These initiatives have, however, received a mixed response from the EU's eastern neighbours. The book shows how the key elements of partnership have been forged mainly by the EU, rather than jointly, and examines the idea and application of external governance, and how this has been over-prescriptive and confusing.