This ground-breaking book sets out evidence on the evolution of social policy within the European Union at three levels of governance: the national, the EU and the ILO. Ailish Johnson seeks to challenge theories of integration that focus on economic interests and relative bargaining power. She suggests an alternative theory that draws upon national welfare state regimes, and the features and incentives of institutions that encourage cooperation and assure outcomes higher than theories of inter-state bargaining or social dumping would predict. Based on extensive research and over 70 interviews with policy makers and practitioners, this study identifies the various Member States as policy leaders, resisters and passive states. The analysis holds some surprises.This book is important reading for students, researchers, and policy-makers in the fields of social policy, labour economics, international relations, European studies, political economy and related fields.