This book is the result of a "State-of-the-Art-Conference" held at the University of Georgia dedicated to the evidence-based treatment of stuttering. An international group of prominent fluency researchers and clinicians were invited to present and discuss current data and issues related to the treatment of stuttering. The topic was defined to include evidence about stuttering, evidence about stuttering treatment, and discussions of how that evidence should guide the continuing research and practice. The explicit link between empirical evidence and suggestions for clinical practice is the goal of the book. The book begins by addressing the notion of "evidence-based practice" and considers its implications for stuttering treatment. Part II presents the intersection of the nature of stuttering; the theories of stuttering; and the implications of nature, theory, and other knowledge for stuttering treatment decisions. Part III provides two of the many measurement issues facing stuttering treatment followed by Part IV, which is devoted to the quality of treatment research evidence, for specific treatments and in terms of some more general methodological and professional issues. The final part summarizes the clinical recommendations made throughout the book and discusses evidence-based, outcomes-focused clinical decisions for stuttering. These chapters are intended to provide "state-of-the-art" information to researchers, clinicians, and students who are interested in developing, identifying, or using the best possible evidence-based treatments for stuttering.