This volume documents an important event in the World Year of Physics 2005 and a continuation of the traditional international summer schools that have taken place in Romania regularly since 1964. On one hand, the study of exotic nuclei seeks answers about the structure and interaction of unique finite quantum mechanical many-body systems. On the other, it provides data that have an impact on the understanding of the origin of the elements in the Universe.The contributions, written by outstanding professors from prestigious research centers over the world, provide the reader with both comprehensive reviews and the most recent results in the field. Large experimental facilities are discussed together with future research projects. The book offers insights into how experiments in terrestrial nuclear physics laboratories may be combined with observations in outer space to enlarge our basic knowledge.