The fast multipole method is one of the most important algorithms in computing developed in the 20th century. Along with the fast multipole method, the boundary element method (BEM) has also emerged as a powerful method for modeling large-scale problems. BEM models with millions of unknowns on the boundary can now be solved on desktop computers using the fast multipole BEM. This is the first book on the fast multipole BEM, which brings together the classical theories in BEM formulations and the recent development of the fast multipole method. Two- and three-dimensional potential, elastostatic, Stokes flow, and acoustic wave problems are covered, supplemented with exercise problems and computer source codes. Applications in modeling nanocomposite materials, bio-materials, fuel cells, acoustic waves, and image-based simulations are demonstrated to show the potential of the fast multipole BEM. Enables students, researchers, and engineers to learn the BEM and fast multipole method from a single source.