Finite element methods (FEM), and its associated computer software have been widely accepted as one of the most effective general tools for solving large-scale, practical engineering and science applications. For implicit finite element codes, it is a well-known fact that efficient equation and eigen-solvers play critical roles in solving large-scale, practical engineering/science problems. Sparse matrix technologies have been evolved and become mature enough that all popular, commercialized FEM codes have already inserted sparse solvers into their software. However, a few FEM books have detailed discussions about Lanczos eigen-solvers, or explain domain decomposition (DD) finite element formulation (including detailed hand-calculator numerical examples) for parallel computing purposes. The materials from this book have been evolved over the past several years through the author's research work, and graduate courses.