Since the summer of 2007, credit markets in almost all industrial countries have been in substantial turmoil and this has become the focus of intense policy debates. The papers in this volume are contributed by the world's leading financial experts and constitute a thorough examination of the first credit market turmoil of the 21st Century. They provide an overview of the main causes, transmission mechanisms and economic implications of what by now has become a major systemic financial crisis. They assess the most important policy considerations and conclude about how to stabilize financial systems, attenuate repercussions on the real economy and shape future regulatory structures. The analyses, conclusions, and recommendations can be expected to influence both public and private policies to mitigate, if not prevent, such crises in the future.