During the 1940s and 1950s, Islamic reformism flourished in Iran. This book examines how Iranian Islamic groups came to rethink traditional accounts of religion and nurture a politicized version of Islam. The author shows how similar social and political circumstances, but different family and educational backgrounds gave rise to socialist, democratic/scientific and fundamentalist/militant reinterpretations of Islam. What was common among these groups was a tendency towards politicizing the religion. A significant contribution to discussions of contemporary political thought in Iran, this book will be of interest to researchers and academics of Islamic political though and Iranian politics and history.