Many modern pharmaceutical and biological products, e.g. blood derivatives, vaccines, cytostatic drugs, antibiotics, bacteria cultures but also consumer goods such as soluble coffee are freeze-dried to transform perishable substances into a form that can be stored and reconstituted to their almost original state without loss of quality.The book describes the up-to-date fundamentals of freeze-drying, not just presenting the process in all its seven steps theoretically, but explaining it with many practical examples. Many years of experience in freeze-drying allow the authors to supply valuable criteria for the selection of laboratory, pilot and production plants, discussing the advantages, drawbacks and limitations of different plant designs.In this second, completely revised edition, process and plant automation are introduced in a separate section and methods to transfer pilot plant qualifications and process data to production are presented. The guidelines for process and plant evaluation and qualifications have been updated and enlarged. Trouble shooting is concentrated in a section of its own and literature has been updated with 100 new quotations to include references as recent as 2002, and 100 new tables and figures have been added.

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