This book introduces the reader to a recent theory in Computer Vision yielding elementary techniques to analyse digital images. These techniques are inspired from and are a mathematical formalization of the Gestalt theory. Gestalt theory, which had never been formalized is a rigorous realm of vision psychology developped between 1923 and 1975. From the mathematical viewpoint the closest field to it is stochastic geometry, involving basic probability and statistics, in the context of image analysis. The authors maintain a public software, MegaWave, containing implementations of most of the image analysis techniques developped in the book. The book is intended for researchers and engineers. It is mathematically self-contained and requires only the basic notions in probability and calculus.