The Indian family planning programme, one of the largest public health initiatives in the world, has adopted various strategies since its inceptionnone, however, have yielded the desired results. What are the reasons for this? Why do large sections of the elite blame the population `explosion` for all the social and economic problems that India faces? Answering these questions, the book critically evaluates the family planning programme in India, exposing its biases and skewed priorities. It argues that Neo-Malthusian ideology has profoundly influenced not only demographers, but also policy planners, the medical profession, and, indeed, the middle class and the elite as a whole. Strongly critical of the impact of neo-liberal economic policies on the already ailing public health care system in India, Mohan Rao argues that the recent emphasis on health and reproductive rights adopted by the Indian government has done little to improve the health of women.