This book addresses the central questions of how social and economic rights have been historically constructed and shaped by processes of political and economic change, and by the normative assumptions and design of social institutions. The book shows that these conceptualizations and processes are deeply gendered even in contexts where formal political equality has been won. It underlines the importance of thinking beyond states and markets in social provisioning, including in the analysis the interactions between these and other social institutions, especially the family and community. Although there have been changes in the balance of work and care in many societies, this book shows that in many contexts these changes have reinscribed rather than eroded gender inequalities. In order to understand these outcomes, the chapters explore the linkages between the norms and assumptions on which social institutions are constituted in different countries, and the ways in which these have structured work burdens and access to entitlements.