Globalization is affecting regional economies in a broad spectrum of aspects, from labor market conditions and development policies to climate change. To understand better how this works, we need both conceptual and methodological contributions. We need new schemes to organize our thinking, direct our attention, and frame thought experiments on the basis of which guidance may be offered. And we need methodological innovations that enable us to carry out studies and thought experiments at levels of spatial and temporal resolution and formal complexity adequate to capture and account for the phenomena that characterize globalization. The chapters of this volume, written by an international cast of eminent regional scientists, represent contributions of both types, in many cases introducing and demonstrating the use of new tools for analyzing and understanding enormous changes underway in regional economies around the world.