Sponsored by the Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT), the second edition of this groundbreaking handbook updates and expands its review of the research, theory, issues, and methodology that constitute the field of educational communications and technology. Organized into seven sections, it profiles and integrates the following elements of this rapidly changing field: theoretical foundations, hard technologies, soft technologies, instructional design, instructional strategies, instructional message design, and research methodologies. All chapters have been updated, some extensively. New chapters include those on programmed instruction, everyday cognition and situated learning, ecological psychology, Internet-based learning, library media centers, foreign language labs, microworlds, automated instructional design, cognitive apprenticeship, case-based learning aids, and conversational analysis. All articles are organized around a numerical cross-referencing system that permits the construction of front-end databases, hypertexts, and summaries.This handbook is intended for graduate students, professors, instructional designers and researchers in educational communication and technology.