Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is conveyed by introductory chapters which explain electrochemical fundamentals and the development from classic batteries to advanced second-generation power cells and their degradation pathways.Suitable for a range of researchers including materials scientists, physicists, electrochemists, lecturers and graduate students.