The book presents the state of the art in high performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. It covers trends in hardware and software development in general and specifically the future of vector-based systems and heterogeneous architectures. The application contributions cover computational fluid dynamics, fluid-structure interaction, physics, chemistry, astrophysics, and climate research. Innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations are presented. All papers were chosen from presentations given at the 9th Teraflop Workshop held in November 2008 at Tohoku University, Japan, and the 10th Teraflop Workshop held in April 2009 at Höchstleistungsrechenzentrum Stuttgart (HLRS), Germany.