This is the third volume of a four-part series which covers the development of the university in Europe (east and west) from its origins to the present day, focusing on a number of major themes viewed from a European perspective. The originality of the series lies in its comparative, interdisciplinary, collaborative and trans-national nature. It deals also with the content of what was taught at the universities, but its main purpose is an appreciation of the role and structures of the universities as seen against a backdrop of changing conditions, ideas and values. This volume deals with the modernisation, differentiation and expansion of higher education which led to the triumph of modern science, changing the relations between universities and national states, teachers and students, their ambitions and political activities. Special attention is focused on the fundamental advances in 'learning' - the content of what was taught at the universities.