South and East Asia may well become the epicentres of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. More than three-quarters of a million people are now estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in China. In 2009, AIDS had already become the leading cause of death by infectious disease. Yet, even despite China's recent economic and social progress, a number of development issues - not least the emergence of glaring inequalities - have also emerged. The expansion of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is also an important longer term development challenge. This book analyses China's HIV/AIDS epidemic, with particular attention to the nature and impact of current economic and social changes and how these changes may be driving the epidemic. It examines aspects of income and gender inequality; rural-urban migration; commercial sex work; healthcare and civil society organizations. Health care reforms and the role of NGOs are also considered as well as general government policy. Overall, this book provides a full discussion of the most critical aspects of the current HIV/AIDS situation in China and its impact on Chinese society.