As life expectancy increases and population ages, the already enormous impact of neurodegeneration on society will become even larger without better prevention and treatment. Developing strategies to prevent degeneration of neurons and to promote a healthy nervous system is, thus, critical. The development of pharmacological agents that would increase production of new neurons was recently facilitated by the identification of the hormonal regulators of various steps of adult neurogenesis. Written by a group of top world experts involved in the study of the mechanisms of hormonal control of brain damage and repair, this book gives a comprehensive account of the neuroprotective and neurogenic effects of steroid and polypeptide hormones. It discusses the effects of thyroid and steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, progestins, gluco-mineralo-corticoids, various neurosteroids) or polypeptide hormones (CRF, urocortins, somatostastin, GH/IGF, leptin, prolactin, glucagon peptides, PACAP, erythropoetin) on neuronal survival and neurogenesis in various neurodegenerative conditions and in brain aging in detail. Furthermore, the book presents new pharmacological approaches for treatment of neurodegenerative conditions based on the neuroprotective and neurogenic properties of natural and synthetic hormones. This is an essential resource for all neurobiologists, students and lecturers in pharmacy, endocrinologists, gynecologists, neurochemists, libraries and biotechnological institutes.