In this compelling book, Tony Wagner analyzes the complex and often-painful process of undertaking meaningful school reform by examining the experiences of three representative but very different schools in Massachusetts as they attempted to implement significant program changes during the early 1990's. All were chosen for his study because they were undertaking 'systemic change', a process by which a school attempts sweeping changes in teaching methods, curriculum, and decision-making processes all at once. Rejecting as inadequate such traditional 'objective' quantitative methods as looking at average test scores and dropout rates, Wagner chose instead to use a mix of qualitative research techniques: extensive observation of classes and of large and small group meetings, analysis of documents ranging from official publications to memoranda, and one-on-one interviews. He combines all of this into 'in-depth portraits of three schools in the process of change.' In the final chapter he offers his conclusion that there are three essential components to a successful school reform process - clear academic goals, core values, and collaboration - and describes how they could be implemented. This fully-updated edition brings the report up to date and boasts a new chapter and fully revised index. It also includes an introduction by Theodore R. Sizer, who is a major scholar in this area.