This book gathers together a wide range of contributions addressing diverse aspects of front-line human involvement in biodiversity exploitation and conservation. As such they collectively provide a snap-shot of on-going action and state-of-the-art research, rather than a series of necessarily more superficial overviews. As such it is envisaged that it will be of particular interest to courses including biodiversity and/or conservation issues, and to advanced students and researchers working in related fields. The scope of these embraces cases involving birds, crop plants, invertebrates, land use changes, livestock, mammals, marine organisms, and medicinal plants. Issues related to the importance of gardens, hedges and green lanes, housing developments, hunting, invasive species, local community involvement, sacred groves, socioeconomic factors, and trade. Examples presented here come from studies in 17 countries including ones in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North and South America. All are topical cases to stimulate thoughts and future work programmes aiming to attain a sustainable balance between the conservation and sustainable exploitation of biodiversity.