Cross-cultural exchange has characterised the economic life of India since antiquity. Its long coastline has afforded convenient access to Asia and Africa, and trading partnerships formed in the exchange of commodities ranging from textiles to military technology. In a journey spanning 2,000 years, this book describes the ties of trade, migration and investment between India and the rest of the world, showing how changing patterns of globalisation reverberated on economic policy, politics, and political ideology within India. Through his narrative, Doctor Tirthankar asks three major questions: Is this a particularly Indian story? When did the big turning points happen? Is it possible to distinguish the modern from the pre-modern pattern of exchange? These questions invite a new approach to the study of Indian history by placing the region squarely at the centre of the narrative. This is global history written on India's terms, inviting South Asian, Indian and global historians to rethink both their history and their methodologies.