Throughout modern European history, the international order of the continent has been conditioned by the interaction between competing trends of internationalism and diverse forms of nationalism. The goal of this book is to distinguish the various types of each, to indicate their origins, trace their development, and analyze their interplay. Carsten Holbraad identifies three major types of each approach: conservative, liberal, and socialist. By looking at all three for both internationalism and nationalism, it is evident that no school of thought has a monopoly on either approach. As a result, the study is able to present a broader and more complex view of the intellectual trends in European history and politics.