The biological diversity of our planet is being depleted due to the direct and indirect consequences of human activity. As the size of animal and plant populations decrease, loss of genetic diversity reduces their ability to adapt to changes in the environment, with inbreeding depression an inevitable consequence for many species. This textbook provides a clear and comprehensive introduction to the importance of genetic studies in conservation. The text is presented in an easy-to-follow format with main points and terms clearly highlighted. Each chapter concludes with a concise summary, which, together with worked examples and problems and answers, emphasise the key principles covered. Text boxes containing interesting case studies and other additional information enrich the content throughout, and over 100 beautiful pen and ink portraits of endangered species help bring the material to life.