This book presents a critical analysis of the debate at the religious, legal and political level sparked off by the introduction of new biomedical technologies (cloning, genetics, organ transplants, IVF, etc.) in Muslim countries. It compares the positions of 'classic' Muslim law and contemporary religious authorities; laws in Muslim countries; the attitudes and concrete behaviour of populations, families and individuals, as well as the regulations of medical associations, bioethics committees etc.. The result is a mosaic of positions which are often different (including from the point of view of ethics) but all in pursuit of legitimisation according to the Koran and the Sharia. The work has an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on law, sociology, anthropology, politics and the history of science. For this reason it will be of interest to scholars and operators in a wide variety of disciplines and fields.