For many centuries, Muslim religious educational institutions (known as dini madaris) have held an important position among educational institutions in the Indian subcontinent. However, after the 9/11 attacks in the USA and the subsequent declaration of the global `war on terrorism`, allegations against these institutionsabout their being breeding grounds for Muslim fundamentalists and terroristshave dominated India`s media. The debates about these educational institutions primarily revolve around questions like: Is there a link between madaris and violence, anti-national activities, or terrorism? How transparent are these alternative educational networks in terms of funding, spread and patronage? What are the political implications of their educational system?The 12 original essays have been divided into three sections. The 12th essay is a factual activity report from a devoted Muslim educationist. The volume concludes that dini madaris, contrary to their public image, are not essentially opposed to change, even though the framework for change appears to be limited.