The book presents basic structures, concepts and algorithms in the area of multilayer optimizing control of industrial systems, as well as the results of the research that was carried out by the authors over the last two decades. The methodologies and control algorithms are thoroughly illustrated by numerous simulation examples. Also, the applications to several case study examples are presented. These include ethylene distillation column, vaporizer pilot scale plant, styrene distillation line consisting of three columns and industrial furnace pilot scale plant. A temporal decomposition is applied to the Integrated Wastewater System case study to derive multilayer dynamic optimizing controller with repetitive robust model predictive control mechanism distributed over the layers operating in different time scales.