This volume contains the proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Computational Physics and New Perspectives in Turbulence, held at Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, in September 2006. Leading experts in turbulence research were brought together at this Symposium to exchange ideas and discuss, in the light of the recent progress in computational methods, new perspectives in our understanding of turbulence. Special emphasis was given to fundamental aspects of the physics of turbulence. The subjects discussed here cover: computational physics and the theory of canonical turbulent flows; experimental approaches to fundamental problems in turbulence; turbulence modeling and numerical methods; and geophysical and astrophysical turbulence. This work should be useful to graduate students and researchers interested in fundamental aspects of turbulence.