Food prices in Japan are extremely high by international standards, and its agricultural sector is beset by low productivity. This book determines what the real level of Japanese agricultural productivity is by comparing it with other developed countries and with less developed countries. Japan has set itself the goal of catching up with the European Community in agricultural productivity, and so the book makes an extended comparison of Japanese and Dutch agriculture to try and determine the likelihood of this happening. Extended inter-country comparisons with Taiwan and the United States are also undertaken. The book analyses how various political and economic factors have interacted to prevent Japan achieving high agricultural productivity at the same time as it was experiencing remarkable growth in its industrial productivity. Solutions to the current problem are suggested and the book concludes by discussing the relevance of Japan's experience to other developing economies.