Therapeutic regimens for visceral leishmaniasis (also Kala-azar, Dum-dum fever or black fever), caused by parasitic protozoa of the Leishmania genus, evolve at a pace never seen before. Spread by tiny and abundant sand flies, the parasite infects internal organs and bone marrow and if left untreated will almost always result in the death of the host. In developing countries successful diagnosis and treatment are complicated by asymptomatic cases, undernutrition and Kala-azar/HIV co-infections. This book brings together world-renown experts writing state-of-arts review on the progress in diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, ultimately leading to the complete elimination of this fatal disease from South Asia. The chapters provide valuable information for disease control as well as therapy and the diagnostic improvements necessary for early treatment, subclinical detection and drug-resistant cases. The presented methods allow for points-of-care testing in the endemic area, enabling rapid detection in resource-poor settings with easy handling and low costs. This book provides essential information for scientists, medical practitioners and policy makers involved in the diagnosis, treatment and elimination of Kala-azar.