Mature ecological criticism of agricultural policies is not easy: targets agreed in Biodiversity Action Plans must be achieved within a framework of agricultural and economic policies. Developing a balanced solution is the essence of sustainability. Until recently the hidden costs of high-production systems on biodiversity has been ignored.This booklet identifies some of the hidden costs of unsustainable production, and also considers examples where conservation management has failed.The authors argue that sustainable land management is possible, and that conservation and production interests can be satisfied. They go on to show how a sustainable approach can be applied throughout Europe. The approach adopted is the one that has underpinned the development of the European Union Biodiversity strategy and is becoming a compelling force for change in Europe's decision-making processes.Land managers and planners, ecologists and agriculturalists will, in particular, find this booklet an invaluable resource. However, it will also appeal to those with a more general interest in the issues of land management.