The theory of linear algebraic monoids culminates in a coherent blend of algebraic groups, convex geometry, and semigroup theory. The book discusses all the key topics in detail, including classification, orbit structure, representations, universal constructions, and abstract analogues. An explicit cell decomposition is constructed for the wonderful compactification, as is a universal deformation for any semisimple group. A final chapter summarizes important connections with other areas of algebra and geometry. The book will serve as a solid basis for further research. Open problems are discussed as they arise and many useful exercises are included.