On 13 September 1923 General Miguel Primo de Rivera staged a military coup, bringing the Restoration parliamentary system to an end. With the support of King Alfonso XIII, Primo de Rivera established a dictatorship that was to last more than six years and dramtically change the course of Spanish history. The military regimen combined a widespread repression of liberals, republicans, anarchists and Catalan nationalists with patriotic propaganda designed to promote an authoritarian view of Spain among the masses. Inspired by Mussolini, Primo de Rivera tried to mobilize and indoctrinate the population in nationalist values in an attempt to halt the advance of democratic ideas. Making Spaniards examines how the regime created a nationalist doctrine, rituals and symbols and how these were transmitted throughout Spanish society. In doing so, the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera developed many of the political ideas that eventually became key principles of the Franco dictatorship.

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