For many companies an organizational model that is designed to achieve operational optimisation is in conflict with strategic ambitions. Over-simplistic organizational models do not allow the simultaneous achievement of short-term goals and mid-term perspectives. Managers may not share similar decision criteria and this may hinder economic success. General management has to create the conditions for strategic uniqueness. Increasing the level of common knowledge, and getting the organization to share the same language for action taking, together provide a unique set of solutions to achieve strategic objectives. Managers and headquarters are accountable for cognitive excellence. They may build or destroy such immaterial assets. This book written by two leading academic figures provides breakthrough contributions, fundamental as well as applied, on issues that are often neglected.