Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science, development and design. Numerous research centers dedicated to materials research and processing in magnetic fields have been created around the world. This volume brings together contributions from these centers to review the most recent activities in this field.The papers in this book cover a broad spectrum of research of the effects on magnetic fields in materials processing. The cutting-edge research topics include magnetic levitation of diamagnetic matter and its applications; anisotropy, used for aligning fibers, polymers, and carbon nanotubes; texturing of materials during a phase transition, in both liquid-to-solid and solid-to-solid state transitions; grain boundary migration and mobility changes, giving us a perspective for texture development in metals; and the damping effect of magnetic fields on conductive liquids, which has been exploited for improved crystal growth quality. Of growing interest are the effects of magnetic fields in biology, and their beneficial applications for medical treatments.