Proposing a wide range of mathematical models that are currently used in life sciences may be regarded as a challenge, and that is precisely the challenge that this book takes up. Of course this panoramic study does not claim to offer a detailed and exhaustive view of the many interactions between mathematical models and life sciences. This textbook provides a general overview of realistic mathematical models in life sciences, considering both deterministic and stochastic models and covering dynamical systems, game theory, stochastic processes and statistical methods. Each mathematical model is explained and illustrated individually with an appropriate biological example. Finally three appendices on ordinary differential equations, evolution equations, and probability are added to make it possible to read this book independently of other literature.