This book presents the mathematical foundations of systems theory in a self-contained, comprehensive, detailed and mathematically rigorous way. This first volume is devoted to the analysis of dynamical systems, whereas the second volume will be devoted to control. It combines features of a detailed introductory textbook with that of a reference source. The book contains many examples and figures illustrating the text which help to bring out the intuitive ideas behind the mathematical constructions. It is accessible to mathematics students after two years of mathematics and graduate engineering students specializing in mathematical systems theory. The reader is gradually brought to the frontiers of research and on the way the required mathematical background material is developed with detailed proofs. As such the book will be useful for established researchers in systems theory as well as those just beginning in the field.