This book introduces and analyzes the multigrid approach for the numerical solution of large sparse linear systems arising from the discretization of elliptic partial differential equations. Special attention is given to the powerful matrix-based-multigrid approach, which is particularly useful for problems with variable coefficients and nonsymmetric and indefinite problems. This approach applies not only to model problems on rectangular grids but also to more realistic applications with complicated grids and domains and discontinuous coefficients. Matrix-Based Multigrid can be used as a textbook in courses in numerical analysis, numerical linear algebra, and numerical PDEs at the advanced undergraduate and graduate levels in computer science, math, and applied math departments. The theory is written in simple algebraic terms and therefore requires preliminary knowledge in basic linear algebra and calculus only. Because it is self contained and includes useful exercises, the book is also suitable for self study by research students, researchers, engineers, and others interested in the numerical solution of partial differential equations.