Karl Lowith's study of Max Weber and Karl Marx is a key text in modern interpretations of the theme of alienation in Marxist theory and the subject of rationalization in Weber's sociology. Lowith's philosophical approach, a product of Heidegger's existentialism, shows how both Marx and Weber work toward a common "life-philosophy." Lowith's analysis of the philosophical anthropology of Marxist theory and sociology also demonstrates that much of the ideological dispute between these two branches of thought is the result of a mutual misunderstanding. Lowith's book remains the best short introduction to the differences and similarities between Weber and Marx. This edition includes a preface from Professor Bryan S. Turner, in which he demonstrates the book's relevance to contemporary sociology.