Mechanochemistry as a branch of solid state chemistry enquires into processes which proceed in solids due to the application of mechanical energy. This provides a thorough, up to date overview of mechanochemistry of solids and minerals. Applications of mechanochemistry in nanoscience with special impact on nanogeoscience are described. Selected advanced identification methods, most frequently applied in nanoscience, are described as well as the advantage of mechanochemical approach in minerals engineering. Examples of industrial applications are given. Mechanochemical technology is being applied in many industrial fields: powder metallurgy (synthesis of nanometals, alloys and nanocompounds), building industry (activation of cements), chemical industry (solid waste treatment, catalyst synthesis, coal ashes utilization), minerals engineering (ore enrichment, enhancement of processes of extractive metallurgy), agriculture industry (solubility increase of fertilizers), and pharmaceutical industry (improvement of solubility and bioavailability of drugs). This reference serves as an introduction to newcomers to mechanochemistry, and encourages more experienced researchers to broaden their knowledge and discover novel applications in the field.