Ethical considerations regarding applications of technologies are becoming increasingly more important. This as well as varying religious viewpoints concerning this topic are discussed. A general overview on the current state of medical technologies is followed by an example of a typical image processing problem. The next section focuses on robotics applications, i.e. using mechatronic assisting systems in neurosurgical operating rooms. A comprehensive overview on progress in intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging using four different setups with different magnetic designs and field strengths ranging from 0.3 to 3 T exemplifies recent developments in neurosurgery. This Acta Neurochirurgica supplement distills the Joint Convention of the Academia Eurasiana Neurochirurgica and the German Academy of Neurosurgery held in Bamberg, Germany from Sept. 1-3, 2005. The main focus was 'Medical Technologies for Neurosurgery' and included imaging, image processing, robotics, workflow analysis, and ethics.