Recently, an important scientific event in metathesis chemistry, the NATO-Advanced Study Institute New Frontiers in Metathesis Chemistry: From Nanostructure Design to Sustainable Technologies for . Synthesis of Advanced Materials was organized in Antalya, Turkey (September 4-16, 2006). Prominent scientists, young researchers and students, convened for two weeks to debate on the newest trends in olefin metathesis and identify future perspectives in this fascinating field of synthetic organic, organometallic and polymer chemistry with diverse potential applications in materials science and technology. Following the fruitful practice of the previous NATO ASI meetings, selected contributions comprising plenary lectures, short communications and posters are compiled in this special volume dedicated to this outstanding international scientific meeting. Olefin metathesis, one of the most efficient transition metal mediated C-C forming reactions, awarded in 2005 with the Nobel Prize for chemistry to Yves Chauvin (IFP), Robert H. Grubbs (Caltech) and Richard R. Schrock (MIT), asserted itself during the last decade as a powerful synthetic strategy for obtaining fine chemicals, biologically active compounds, architecturally complex assemblies, new materials and functionalized polymers tailored for specific utilizations (e.g. sensors, semiconductors, microelectronic devices) etc. Metathesis reactions such as ring-closing metathesis (RCM), enyne metathesis, cross-metathesis (CM), acyclic diene metathesis polymerizafion (ADMET) and ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), largely dealt with during the ASI meeting, have gone far beyond the 20-th century boundaries resulting in a broad diversification towards sustainable technologies with perspectives for industrial applications of a wide range of products, from the manufacture of smart, nanostructured materials to the synthesis of complex organic compounds, natural products, pharmaceuticals and supramolecular assemblies.