Since the discovery of the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP), derived from jellyfish, this protein that emits a green glow has initiated a revolution in molecular biosciences. With this tool, it is now possible to visualize nearly any protein of interest in any cell or tissue of any species. Since the publication of the first edition, there have been tremendously significant technological advances, including development of new mutant variants. Proteins are now available in yellow and blue, and Novel Fluorescent Proteins (NFPs) have expanded their utility in developing biosensors, biological markers, and other biological applications.This updated, expanded new edition places emphasis on the rise of NFPs, including new chapters on NFP properties with detailed protocols, applications of GFPs and NFPs in industry research, and biosensors. This book provides a solid theoretical framework, along with detailed, practical guidance on use of GFPs and NFPs with discussion of potential pitfalls. The expert contributors provide real examples in showing how to tailor GFP/NFP to specific systems, maximize expression, and enhance detection.