As studies using microarray technology have evolved, so have the data analysis methods used to analyze these experiments. The CAMDA conference plays a role in this evolving field by providing a forum in which investors can analyze the same data sets using different methods. Methods of Microarray Data Analysis IV is the fourth book in this series, and focuses on the important issue of associating array data with a survival endpoint. Previous books in this series focused on classification (Volume I), pattern recognition (Volume II), and quality control issues (Volume III). In this volume, four lung cancer data sets are the focus of analysis. We highlight three tutorial papers, including one to assist with a basic understanding of lung cancer, a review of survival analysis in the gene expression literature, and a paper on replication. In addition, 14 papers presented at the conference are included. This book is an excellent reference for academic and industrial researchers who want to keep abreast of the state of the art of microarray data analysis. Jennifer Shoemaker is a faculty member in the Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics and the Director of the Bioinformatics Unit for the Cancer and Leukemia Group B Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center. Simon Lin is a faculty member in the Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics and the Manager of the Duke Bioinformatics Shared Resource, Duke University Medical Center.