This is an advanced text on the microstructure and properties of materials, the first volume of a possible 3-volume set. While there are many elementary texts in materials science, there are very few advanced texts. Chapter 1 on aluminum alloys presents microstructural optimization and critical considerations in design applications. Chapter 2 on Nickel-base superalloys reviews the compositional, microstructural and processing advances in increasing their maximum use temperature. Chapter 3 on metal matrix composites discusses the strengthening mechanisms of metals dispersed with short fibers or particles. Chapter 4 on polymer matrix composites contains the details of the microsturcture property relationships of high performance fibers, polymer matrix material and the advanced composites made therewith. Chapter 5 on ceramics matrix composites describes the fibers and matrix materials used, the processing techniques involved and the mechanical properties under different loading conditions. Chapter 6 on inorganic glasses describes the influence of second phases, both glassy and cyrstalline on their properties. Chapter 7 on superconducting materials shows the importance of twins, grain boundaries, dislocations and stacking faults. Chapter 8 on magnetic materials introduces the domain structure and its effects on the soft and hard magnetic properties.